Wherever we look, regression is evident. If there be any doubt, take
these twenty-three examples. Skim through, if you wish. There’s quite
enough to prove it.
1. Digging to the lowest depths, archaeologists repeatedly come upon a
city complex architecturally superior to later cities on the same site.
2. The medicine of ancient Egypt was, generally speaking, far superior to
that practiced in Europe during the Middle Ages. Pre-Incan medical
surgery was superior to that of the Peruvian Inca.
3. The oceangoing vessels employed by the ancient explorers were large,
strong and immensely superior to the craft possessed by medieval
4. The earliest ancient maps were drawn with the greatest precision—and
superior to later navigational charts.
5. The old Maya calendar is superior to our own.
6. It can be demonstrated that many languages have suffered degeneration.
7. Ancient set building stones are much larger and more difficult to
transport than those of subsequent cultures.
8. In dynamic realism, the masterpieces of the Cro-Magnon cave artists of
Altamira (Spain) and Lascaux (France) were superior to the paintings
and sculptures of later civilizations.
9. Roads: Britain’s prehistoric Icknield Way (running 200 miles, in places
as wide as a four-lane highway) is superior to any road constructed by
the later Romans.
10. Mathematics: Whereas very ancient cultures knew about zero (the secret
ingredient in advanced mathematics), frequently, as decadence occurred,
they forgot it. The Babylonians, for example, wrote it as a blank
space—a practice which eventually disappeared. The same retrograde
process occurred in China.
11. Astronomy: Originally, constellations took the form of animals, making
it easier to remember and identify them; however, as civilization
retrogressed, they actually became animals, heroes or gods.
12. Scientific compasses, which pointed due north and south, were later
preserved as magic, through which Chinese necromancers told fortunes.
13. Crete: The earliest Cretan empire was more culturally advanced than the
empire which followed it (featuring running water, the most modem
bathroom facilities, tinted-glass goblets, glazed dinnerware and
elaborate dress styles).
14. Canary Islands: Considerable cultural deterioration operated until (by
the time the Spaniards discovered them in the fourteenth century)
warfare was being waged with stones and wooden weapons. They
preserved the memory of a great civilization of cities, but were no
longer capable of constructing anything more than simple huts.
15. The Pacific: On most islands of Polynesia and Micronesia are remains
of cities, temples, harbors and statues, whose size and elaborate
architecture indicate a civilization incomparably more advanced than
exists there today.
16. Pakistan: The lowest strata of the remains of Mohenjo-Daro show a
more developed art than the upper layers. Later the quality of the
commercial seals fell off sadly. The soapstone was replaced by
common clay; and crude geometric shapes replaced the lifelike
engravings. Highly glazed ceramics were supplanted by plain clumsy
pots. The city’s systematic plan gave way to shabby structures and mere
hovels at the topmost stratum. From a high early peak of technology, it
then progressed no further. Everything, was done in imitation of the old
techniques. Even the bricks were inferior.
17. Central America: The present-day descendants of what was once the
greatest empire in the Americas (the Maya) are mere jungle savages,
unable to read or write their ancestors’ hieroglyphics; unable to
construct large buildings, much less whole cities.
18. Egypt declined from technical sophistication to a vague shadow of its
former glory. Earliest pyramid construction was superior to later
pyramid construction; succeeding pyramids are clumsy imitations. Even
construction methods changed (from levitation science to build the
Great Pyramid in the Fourth Dynasty, to a balance of levers and pulleys
a thousand years later in the Twelfth Dynasty). The workmanship level
of jewelry as well as architecture was higher in earlier periods
(everything being more perfectly made and more beautiful). On top of
that, later generations suffered a decline in lifestyle.
19. Sumeria, extensive and all-encompassing, was in many respects more
advanced than the cultures which followed it.
20. Greece: A city of the third millennium B.C. now at the bottom of Lake
Copias (the legendary Copae destroyed by Hercules?) possesses a titanic
complex of rock-hewn passages said to be beyond the capabilities of
either classical or modern Greece.
21. Bulgaria: Grave excavations at Karanova have revealed an
extraordinarily rich and complex technology of 3000 B.C. far in
advance of later achievements in Europe.
22. Peru: Pre-Inca buildings and art were of a much higher level than those
of the Incas. Furthermore, while more recent Spanish buildings collapse
today in earthquakes, both the Inca and pre-Inca constructions survive
23. Easter Island statues of more recent times appear to be imperfect copies
of the first creations. (And they have suffered most from erosion,
whereas those from the archaic period have remained intact.) Again, the
earliest settlement on the island was more remarkably developed than its
two later successors.
Do you see? it is not at all obvious that mankind is progressing;
historically, degeneration has been the trend.
PHYSICAL DEGENERATION ALSO
On the third day of our deliberations, the Jigsaw Team turned its
attention to this question.
Perch set the pace. “I’ll grant that culturally and morally we tend to
retrogress,” he said. “But let’s look at the physical side. Surely in this sense
we’re improving, right?”
“Sorry, Charlie.” It was Wajsmann speaking. “Here again, according to
demonstrated science, the opposite appears to be true.
“For what it’s worth, the skull capacity (with its inferred brain size) of
Cro-Magnon man was at least equal to and sometimes superior to our own.
“Neanderthal (‘Stone Age’) man had an appreciably larger cranium
(1,600 cubic centimeters) than that of modern man.
“The cranial capacity of ancient man in Morocco (called ‘Mouillans’ by
anthropologists) measured an average 2,000 cubic centimeters, compared to
modern man’s cranial size of about 1,400 cubic centimeters.
“I suggest to you that the downward spiral of intellectual capacity began
soon after the Deluge.
“Mankind today is no more intelligent than he was a thousand years ago,
hut we have accumulated more technology. We have the accumulated
knowledge of the past upon which we can draw and make improvements.”
(I had to agree with Wajsmann. Most people would be shocked if they
knew that a general regression is likewise evident in a good many species,
both in the vegetable and animal kingdoms.)
“Ok, out with it,” demanded Perch. “Where’s the evidence?”
I proceeded. “Agassiz was one of the first to observe that in many
instances the fish of extinct species were better developed and appeared
‘more advanced’ than later species, the modern included. Agassiz spoke as
an authority in his field. Many better developed mammals likewise became
extinct.1 Similar observations have been made regarding practically all of
“But there’s more. While the fossil record presents better developed
specimens than those now living, another feature—larger size—has been
observed in association. Do you see what we have here?
“This is a blow to the evolutionary concept. ‘Cope’s Law’ presumed
that the evolutionary series would show increase in improvement and size as
time went on.
“Darwin found himself at a loss to explain how ‘now we find mere
pigmies compared with the antecedent allied races.’”2
Perch leaned forward. “So you’re saying that today’s animals were
once larger? Like sheep as big as horses?”
“Yes, Charlie. That’s the evidence.”
“What about man?”
At that moment, Corderoy shuffled a newspaper noisily, eliciting a
frown from Denise. “How about this?” he crooned. “Just yesterday,
October 19, in Nairobi, museum director Richard Leakey showed off an
ancient skeleton of a twelve-year-old boy. Commenting on widely held
scientific beliefs that man’s ancestors were smaller than modern man,
Leakey said: ‘This specimen confirms early hints that Homo erectus
individuals were fully as tall as modern people. We can now ask if many
modern populat-ions are smaller than their early ancestors and if so why.’”3
I thanked Corderoy and continued. “We can go further and say with Dr.
Louis Burkhatter that the ‘existence of gigantic human beings (in the past)
must be considered as a scientifically assured fact.’”4
“Did you know that on every continent are uncovered not only artifacts,
but footprints, skulls and skeletons of humans who far exceeded us in
“Wasn’t aware of that,” said Perch.
“These are well documented. In fact, a fresh look at the fossils led
Weidenreich, of Manhattan’s American Museum of Natural History, to the
belief that ‘gigantism and massiveness may have been a general or at least a
widespread character of early mankind.’”5
“That’s staggering,” gasped Perch. “But it does support the Genesis line
that ‘there were giants in the earth in those days.’6 Yet surely, wouldn’t large
size be inefficient due to gravitational factors?”
“Not necessarily, Charlie. You see, the basic characteristics of gravity
still elude analysis by modern physics. A number of scientists now believe
that electromagnetic energy supersedes the orthodox laws of gravity.
“Larger size may have been to man’s best advantage. There is scientific
reason to believe that gigantic size and long life go together. The body cells
become lighter, the blood moves more freely, there is less fatigue and the
body wears out more slowly.”7
Wajsmann broke in. “Let’s not forget, the concept of an era when
mankind lived longer does persist in the memory of most races. And
scientific research in several countries suggests that life spans of several
centuries are possible under certain conditions.”8
“A combination of factors such as apparently obtained before the
Deluge?” asked Heron. “Well, it appears settled then. Man was once a
higher, superior being—certainly not a species of the monkey family. We
are only a shade of the original man.”
Denise had been scribbling madly. Just then her stomach rumbled and
she glanced hastily at her Cartier. “Goodness, it’s lunchtime!” she
exclaimed. “Shall I sum up?”
“I suppose we must face it,” she sighed. “We live today in a
zoologically impoverished world. The fossil remains show that in the past
plants and animals alike were (1) more widely distributed; (2) of greater
variety; and (3) greater in both size and quality. Humans likewise were
superior, even to living longer.
“That’s it, guys. Physical degeneration, and not evolutionary
improvement, is the story of life on this planet. You might say, like a clock
once wound up, but now running down.”
Dead Men’s Secrets, pp. 47-51, Archaeologist Jonathan Gray