Not entirely sure what to make of this. Anyone researched this subject?
“Few understand the amazing religious drama that has played out over centuries in Britain, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Key parts of the story have been lost, forgotten or deliberately obscured. But the coming of true Christianity to Europe’s western isles is a remarkable story.”
How did Christianity first come to Europe’s western isles? What happened to the true gospel? Why does this history matter today?
Why should anyone care how Christianity came to England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales—especially if they do not even live there?
Church history is probably the last subject many people would choose to look into. Many think of history as a dull recounting of dates, dead people and past events irrelevant to our times. They wonder: “What relevance could it possibly have to our lives today?” This is a dangerous attitude.
It is not surprising that few understand the significance of the incredible religious drama that has played out over centuries in Europe’s western isles, because critical parts of the story have been lost, forgotten or deliberately obscured! Most people today have only heard a deliberately slanted version of this epic struggle, because modern scholars discount or ignore surprising pieces of evidence that paint a very different picture of the first arrival of Christianity in the West.
Yet the coming of true Christianity to Europe’s western isles—and what happened to the true gospel of Jesus Christ—is a remarkable story. It can be verified in recorded histories accessible in many libraries and on the Internet. Those records—together with key facts and perspectives revealed in the Bible—hold vital lessons for us today. The true history of Europe’s western isles also sheds light on a deadly serious contest that is moving toward a climax, involving not only human beings but powerful spiritual forces. When you discover what happened, you can begin to understand where current events are leading—events that are destined to affect the entire world in the not-too-distant future. If we ignore the records and lessons of the past, which are readily available to us, our modern generations will reap serious consequences!
ASSERTIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
One of the first discoveries we make, when beginning to explore the history of early Christianity in Europe’s western isles, is the dramatic difference between the assertions and assumptions of modern scholars and the clear record of history, as preserved both in the Bible and in secular sources. Richard Fletcher, a historian at the University of York, states that “the impression given by Luke [in the book of Acts] of an orderly and controlled diffusion… is misleading… it is reasonably clear that Christianity spread east and west both quickly and anarchically, without overt strategy or leadership” (The Conversion of Europe, p. 14). Catholic theologians John Walsh and Thomas Bradley write: “Christianity entered Ireland, presumably in the fourth and fifth centuries, by a slow and unplanned infiltration” (The Story of the Irish Church, p. 1). Such statements are misleading, and ignore obvious facts of Scripture and history.
The Bible reveals that God does not operate in a capricious and haphazard manner. The Apostle Paul states: “God is not the author of confusion [disorder] but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints” (1 Corinthians 14:33). To spread the Gospel, Jesus called and trained 12 disciples (Luke 6:12-16). They were to go first to “the lost sheep of the house of Israel” and later to the Gentiles (Matthew 10:5-6, 18). Paul was sent to the Gentiles and the children of Israel, while Peter was sent primarily to the Jews—of Judea and also of the Dispersion (Acts 9:15; Galatians 2:7-8). When Philip preached in Samaria, he coordinated his activities with the headquarters church in Jerusalem (Acts 8:5-14). The Apostle Paul followed this same pattern (Galatians 1:18-19; 2:1-2). The book of Acts shows that God guided the spread of the gospel by supernatural means (Acts 10; 13:1-2; 16:6-10), and that He provided the strategy and leadership that directed the spread of early Christianity.
Later the Apostle Paul sent preachers and teachers to specific areas: Tychicus to Ephesus, Crescens to Galatia [the Gauls of central Asia Minor] and Titus to Dalmatia and Crete (Ephesians 6:21-22; 2 Timothy 4:10; Titus 1:5). This harmonizes with what later histories record about the organized movements of the Apostles. Eusebius, whose writings represent the only surviving account of the crucial first three centuries of the early Church, states: “Thomas… was chosen for Parthia, Andrew for Scythia, John for Asia” (Ecclesiastical History, Bk. 3, chap. 1). Cressy, an Oxford graduate and Benedictine monk in the 17th century, wrote that the Apostles divided by lot regions of the world for preaching the gospel (Church History of Britanny, vol. 4, Bk. 1, chap. 6). While it is possible to conclude from preserved fragments of history that Christianity spread in a chaotic fashion, such a conclusion conflicts with what the Bible and history actually record.
Modern scholars’ statements about the spread of early Christianity typically reflect a similar mindset based on similar assumptions. Historian Richard Fletcher writes: “The spread of Christianity to Alexandria and beyond along the coast of North Africa to Carthage has left no narrative trace of any kind” (Fletcher, p. 14). Anglican historian Powel Dawley comments: “Precisely how or when the first Christian community in Britain received its start is impossible to tell… the spread of the Gospel to this northwestern limit of the Roman Empire has been lost beyond recovery” (Chapters in Church History, p. 93). Irish writer Liam de Paor states: “There is no way of knowing how long there had been Christians… in Ireland before the [Roman] church began its great organizational drive in the fifth century” (Milestones in Irish History, pp. 23, 30).
Regrettably, these statements convey an erroneous impression of what can be known about the movements of the Apostles, and about the arrival of true Christianity in Europe’s western isles. Clement, the fourth bishop of the church in Rome, wrote in the late first century that the Apostle Paul, “after preaching in the east and west… taught righteousness to the whole world, and came to the extreme limit of the west” (Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. 5, in Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 9, p. 231). Some think the phrase “the extreme limit of the west” refers to Rome, others believe it refers to Spain or Britain. Yet any map of the Roman Empire in the first century shows that the Britannic Isles—not Rome or Spain—represent the extremity of the west. Gildas, a British monk in the 6th century, stated that “the island of Britain lies virtually at the end of the world, towards the west and north-west” (The Ruin of Britain, Bk. 3, chap. 1, Winterbottom, ed., p. 16).
Tertullian, bishop of Carthage in the second century, states: “The regions of Britain which have never been penetrated by the Romans [southwest England, Wales and Scotland] have received the religion of Christ” (Def. Fidei, p. 179). Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in the early 300s, records that “the apostles passed beyond the ocean to the Isles called the British Isles” (Demonstratio Evangelica, Bk. 3, chap. 5). Eusebius had access to a substantial library at Caesarea, which contained sources that have since been lost. Theodoret, bishop of Cyprus in Syria (circa 430ad) states that “Paul, liberated from his first captivity at Rome, preached the Gospel to the Britons and others in the West… and the Cymry [the Welsh]” (D. Civ. Gracae Off., Bk. 9). Dorotheous, bishop of Tyre, stated (in about 300ad) that “Aristobulus, whom Paul saluted [Romans 16:10] was bishop of Britain” and that Simon Zelotes also came to Britain (Synopsis de Apostol., Synops. 9, 23). Gildas says that the coming of Christianity to Britain “happened first, as we know, in the last years of the emperor Tiberius [14-37ad]” (The Ruin of Britain, p. 18). This means that Christianity arrived in Britain no later than 37ad—within five years after Christ’s crucifixion. Gildas also refers to the Britons as God’s “latter-day Israel” (ibid., p. 28).
Some of the most respected authorities in previous centuries have accepted these early reports as trustworthy accounts of history. James Ussher, Archbishop of Ireland and one of the greatest scholars of the 17th century, presents considerable evidence that James, Simon Zelotes, Simon Peter, the Apostle Paul and others brought Apostolic Christianity to Europe’s western isles in the first century (The Whole Works of James Ussher, vol. 5, chap. 1, Erlington). Robert Parsons, an English Jesuit and Oxford scholar, asserted in his 17th century work The Three Conversions of England that the Apostles first brought Christianity to the island, and that “the Christian religion began in Britain within fifty years of Christ’s Ascension” (p. 14). Modern scholars’ claims that the spread of Christianity to Europe’s western isles “left no narrative trace” and that it has been “lost beyond recovery” are simply not true! Such statements ignore recorded evidence that is readily available to anyone who cares to check the sources.
FACTS VS. FABLES
But what happened to the true Gospel that the Apostles brought to Europe’s western isles in the first century? How accurate are the widely accepted traditions that Patrick converted the Irish in the 400s and that Augustine brought Christianity to England in the 600s? When you dig beneath the surface of modern assumptions, you find scholars making very interesting admissions. Irish Catholic historians relate that “traditionally… Saint Patrick has been credited with converting the entire Irish race from paganism in the very short period between 432 and 461… however, we have to admit that there were certainly Christians in Ireland before Patrick arrived… and that the saint worked as an evangelist only in part of the island [the north]” (Walsh and Bradley, p. 1). Irish writer Liam de Paor states that “Ireland was not converted by one man [Patrick]… it may be that Christianity reached the west country [of Britain] and the southern Irish sea virtually independent of the Roman system, at a very early date… centuries before Patrick” (Paor, pp. 21, 23). There are traditions that the Apostle James preached the gospel in Ireland before returning to Jerusalem, where he was martyred (see MacManus, The Story of the Irish Race, p. 103). The widely accepted notion that Patrick first brought Christianity to Ireland is a fable—not a fact. Numerous historical sources state that the Apostles brought true Christianity to Ireland four centuries before Patrick!
The tradition that Augustine converted England to the true faith in the 600s looks quite different when the facts of history are known. Bede, an Anglo-Saxon monk living in northeast England in the 700s, wrote what has been called the primary sourcebook for this period: The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. Bede was a highly respected scholar, but he has also been called a “medieval spin doctor” because he tended to gloss over subjects that did not fit the story he was telling. As a Saxon, he glorifies the Saxons and puts down the Britons. He was also an enthusiastic supporter of Roman Catholicism. He says nothing of the Apostles coming to Britain and Ireland, only briefly mentions other Christians preceding Augustine in early Britain, and instead focuses on Augustine as if he were the “bringer of the true faith” to the English nation.
However, when you read Bede’s account carefully, it becomes obvious that British bishops already functioning on the island would have nothing to do with Augustine or the religion that he represented. They would not accept the Roman Catholic observance of Easter, or method of baptism (infant baptism had become universal by that time), or the authority that Rome gave Augustine to be its Archbishop of England. Augustine told the British bishops: “You act in many particulars contrary to our custom, or rather the custom of the universal church” (Bede, Bk. 2, chap. 2). Bede comments about the “errors of the Britons” and says that the “Scots in no way differ from the Britons in their behavior” (ibid., chap. 4). Describing why the Scottish bishops, at a confrontation at Witby in 664ad, refused to adopt the Roman Easter, Bede reports that they followed an ancient practice—”the same which St. John the Evangelist, the disciple of our Lord, with all the churches over which he presided, is recorded to have observed” (ibid., chap. 25).
Bede’s account reveals that the Scottish bishops were actually observing the biblical Passover (at the beginning of Nisan 14, shortly after the sunset ending Nisan 13) and Days of Unleavened Bread (see Leviticus 23:4-8). The Scots’ appeal to scriptural practice and Apostolic tradition was countered with a reference to then-current customs of the Roman Church, and ridicule that “the Picts and the Britons, who foolishly, in these two remote islands of the world… oppose all the rest of the universe” (ibid., Bk. 2, chap. 25). Yet this same battle had raged several centuries earlier in Asia Minor where the followers of John (called Quartodecimians) were excommunicated by a bishop in Rome for observing the Passover on Nisan 14 instead of the Roman Easter. Following the confrontation at Whitby, the remnants of Apostolic Christianity retreated to Scotland, Wales and southwest England as the Saxons and eventually more Britons embraced Roman Catholicism. In Europe’s western isles, the teachings of Apostolic Christianity were pushed aside by a different gospel emanating from Rome.
HOW TRUTH WAS LOST
But why has the truth about the first arrival of Christianity in Europe’s western isles—and the fate of the true Gospel there—been obscured and forgotten? Why are so many clear historical records brushed aside? There are a number of reasons. The Bible reveals that true Christianity is in a struggle with evil spiritual forces: Satan, his demons and whomever they can influence (Ephesians 6:10-12). Secular historians and liberal theologians do not take this spiritual dimension seriously, yet it explains much of what has happened to the true Gospel. Satan, as the adversary of God (Isaiah 14:12-15), has sought to disrupt and derail the plan of God from the very beginning. Satan was behind the efforts to kill Jesus and end His ministry (Matthew 2:1-18; Matthew 26:1-5; John 8:37-44; John 13:2). Satan also attempts to subvert true Christianity by motivating professing Christians to promote heretical and subtly misleading ideas (see Acts 20:29-30; 2 Peter 2:1-3).
Faulty human reasoning also played a role in obscuring the true Gospel. The Bible explains that “there is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death” (Proverbs 14:12). Over the centuries, some thought it reasonable to allow former pagans to continue their favorite religious practices, as long as they did so in a different spirit, because this might facilitate their acceptance of “Christianity.” This is why the pagan celebrations of Easter, Christmas, saints’ days, image worship, and prayers for the dead were sanctioned by the Church at Rome. Yet the Bible actually condemns these practices (see Exodus 20:1-7; Deuteronomy 12:29-32; Jeremiah 10:1-5). As these customs were grafted into the church, true Apostolic Christianity was eventually displaced by pagan practices.
Human prejudice also played a part in obscuring the truth. In the aftermath of the first-century Jewish revolt against Roman authority, religious practices that appeared Jewish—Sabbath observance, keeping the biblical Holy Days and following biblical dietary laws—became objects of scorn and revulsion, even though Jesus, His disciples and the early Church observed these teachings (see Luke 4:16; Acts 17:2; 18:21). It took centuries of determined effort to stamp out Apostolic teachings, as the Quartodecimian controversies in Asia Minor and England, regarding the time and manner of observing the Passover, illustrate. In more recent times, Archbishop Ussher’s calculation that the earth was created in 4004bc (which holds no credence today) provides modern scholars a reason to discount evidence he collected demonstrating that the Apostles brought the Gospel to Europe’s western isles in the first century.
There is an additional reason why the truths about the first arrival of Christianity in the West, and about true Apostolic Christianity, have been obscured and forgotten. As historian Fletcher deftly observes, “history is written by the winners” (Fletcher, p. 75). He explains that in the theological disputes that raged over the centuries, those individuals or groups who wound up on the losing side—whether right or wrong—were “systematically vilified, their writings hunted down and destroyed” (ibid.)—which is what happened in Britain and Ireland. The British bishops who opposed Augustine and the teachings of Roman Christianity were labeled “perfidious [treacherous] men” and hundreds were murdered (Bede, Bk. 2, chap. 2). Today Bede’s biased history is widely available in English, yet Ussher’s text—called “the most exact account” of the planting of the British church—is available almost exclusively in Latin, if it can be found at all. It is no wonder fundamental truths have been forgotten.